Lupus – Help Is at Hand

There are four main known types of lupus which are Systemic lupus erythematosus or SLE, Discoid lupus erythematosus or DLE, Drug-induced lupus and Neonatal lupus. The diagnoses of these vary from one disease to the other. Lupus is a disease that has many symptoms which very commonly get mistaken for other problems. This is because symptoms can include rashes, fevers, ulcers in the mouth, hair loss, anaemia and pains in the chest which could be symptoms of many other illnesses such as vitamin B deficiencies, allergic reactions, thyroid problems and even heart disease. There is no single test for because of this broad range of symptoms.

Lupus may be very difficult to diagnose because of the vast range of symptoms which can also lead to it going unnoticed. A diagnosis of SLE can consist of taking a history of symptoms, blood tests and other tests on organs such as the kidneys. The cause of lupus is unknown but it looks as if it is genetic combined with triggers such as stress, injury or illness. The disease may be very active and then go into periods of remission which also makes it evasive.

Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disease. It causes antibodies and inflammation which attack the body and destroy healthy tissue. It also causes pain and damage to vital organs sometimes.

There are continued studies on Lupus. One study performed on mice was carried out with nontoxic therapy using small synthetic peptides (protein) to create T cells which regulate the illness by locking it. Another study published online in Clinical Immunology, the journal of the Federation of Clinical Immunology consisted of thirty lupus patients were studied using special peptides in low dosage and it found the peptides blocked and reduced auto-antibodies. They also generated T cells. Ten active lupus patients participated in this study and 20 in remission. As a control for the study fifteen healthy patients contributed and their blood samples were also cultured with these peptides.

These studies have found that peptides can work a bit like a vaccine because they boost the immune system of those people with Lupus which in turn served to put the disease in remission. In the past Lupus was treated in some country’s using steroids and Cytoxan. These drugs have toxic side effects which can affect fertility and the immune system.

Lupus sufferers can keep positive and hold hope as there is much ongoing research for this disease. There are also many natural ways to boost your immunity which can be discussed with your natural practitioner which will help in your handling of Lupus. The best way is to work with both your doctor and natural therapist if you have many varied symptoms but no clear answer for what is causing them all. Together, these two professionals can help get your health back on track and hopefully give you the answers you need so you can begin to heal.

Source by Jenetta Haim


Skincell Vial 29-A: Ingredients and Information

As an innovative product on the beauty scene, Skincell Vial 29A comes with many inquiries. Skincell Vial 29A is not necessarily considered a face cream. It is more of a serum that has a ninety-nine percent concentration of peptide. The high concentrate percentage seems to have made this product capable of reducing wrinkles more than other beauty products on the market, as the experts indicate.

However, we wanted to see for ourselves, so we did an investigation on the exact ingredients that are in this product. Some reports have indicated that the significant reduction in wrinkles makes this product potentially good for people who are concerned about their facial appearance.

There are a few other products that have made this claim and one of them is Prototype 37C. Both products seemed to have been developed by the same manufacturer, Elldia Laboratories. We found that the high peptide concentrate allowed the product to be less irritating to the skin. Products with high concentration of peptides will act as a moisturizer and rejuvenate the skin.

The product has several important peptides as its ingredients namely:

1. Eyeseryl – a tetra-peptide to get rid of puffiness under the eye

2. Matrixyl 3000 – repairs damages caused by aging

3. Syn-Coll – repair various skin issues related to aging

4. Acetyle penta-peptide – gets rid of fine lines

5. Acetyl hexa-peptide – stops new formed wrinkles

6. Acetyl octa-peptide – improves the depth of wrinkles

Pentapeptide-3 is the most active and powerful ingredient in SkinCell Vial #29 as it increases and stimulates the benefits of the additional peptides that are in the product. Pentapeptide-3 decreases the excitability of neurons, which results in the elimination of fine lines and reduction of wrinkles.

Peptides are naturally found in the body, but as aging increases, they are less obvious. Therefore, products that contain these natural ingredients make it less invasive on the skin and with no apparent side effects; unlike other beauty products with harsh ingredients and fillers.

Argireline is also another ingredient to mention that targets the breakdown of proteins and replaces them with one important component called hexapeptide. It also blocks the release of neurotransmitters and therefore, reduces the depth and length of wrinkles.

Skincell Vial 29A has a very popular reputation as a serum that prevents wrinkles but because of its high peptide concentration, it sets itself apart on the skin care shelves.

By having the right ingredients necessary for the reduction of wrinkles, Skincell Vial 29A seems to have the greatest potential than other products with less peptide percentage.

Read more Skincell 29-a reviews from Real Users.

Source by Dave R. Walker


Recommended Anti Wrinkle Cream

The eyes are the window to your soul. They can tell others if you are stressed, happy, tired, or surprised. Every moment of your life you live through your eyes, and the tell-tale signs are not only reflected in your iris, but also the area around your eyes. Why not show your eyes and the surrounding areas individual attention and care?

There are many indicators of the need to treat your skin with anti wrinkle cream. Puffiness, discoloration, and wrinkles are the most common reason for people paying more attention to their skin treatments. Better than using just a moisturizer, many people are now using anti wrinkle eye cream because of its many beneficial properties.

Studies have shown that the skin around your eye is ten times thinner than the skin on the rest of your face, making it very delicate. There is constant washing and agitation. Those who wear make up have a lot more wear and tear on their skin due to the use of brushes, eyeliners, mascara, and eye shadows creates a lot of skin agitation. Because of the thinner skin, the eye area is the first to show any wrinkles and fine lines. This also causes darkness and puffiness under the eye to appear easily.

Along with a good Anti Wrinkle Cream, rest is the recommend course of action. There is truth in the term “beauty rest”.

A good anti aging skin cream will address puffiness, darkness, fine lines, and wrinkles around your eyes. Collagen occurs naturally in the body and decreases in production over time causing wrinkles. Collagen is the protein which creates elasticity in your skin and helps it to bounce back from the stresses of the day.

A good anti wrinkle cream will have peptides and antioxidants. Peptides are the heavy weights in anti aging creams. Essentially, peptides are chains of amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins that rejuvenate your skin. They are smart too, communicating with the proteins to produce the right type of collagen to repair your skin. Peptides assist in the repair of collagen. This is what makes your skin look healthy and young, removing stress lines, sagging, and wrinkles.

While peptides are amazing, they do require a little bit of assistance. In order for them to be used to their full potential, peptides need a few specialized ingredients to augment their efficiency and potency. Antioxidants also help restore the skin’s health and work in tandem with peptides for maximum potential. When ingredients are paired together correctly, the anti wrinkle cream will be able to restore your skin and remove wrinkles, puffiness, and darkness.

Women tend to have healthy skin routines much earlier than men, but that doesn’t mean that the male gender should be without anti aging skin products. Men should also be taking care of the skin around their eyes by using anti wrinkle eye cream. Men’s top complaints about aging is fine lines around their eyes, which can be corrected with anti wrinkle cream.

Source by Steven Johnson


Prototype #37C – One of a Kind

If you are familiar with the wrinkle industry, peptides are the latest sensation to hit. They are made up of short polymers of amino acids, and they are known to do a range of things, including rebuilding collagen and elastin, relaxing the muscles that would cause wrinkles in the first place, stimulating healing of the lower layers of the skin, and many other functions. Some of the better known peptides include matrixyl, argireline, and copper peptides.

As such, it is not uncommon to see products with one or two peptides and 10-20% concentration. It is also not uncommon to see these products using “peptide” in their name to try to draw you in. Others however may use one or two peptides, but they do not actually reveal their concentrations. Should you see a product doing this, it provides immediate cause for suspicion. However, depending on the peptides, more is not always better. For example, products should not use more than 10% argireline. It works by relaxing the muscles associated with common facial expressions, and more than 10% can actually cause facial sagging, which is one thing many of us are actually trying to avoid. However, with multiple peptides, a higher percentage is better.

Prototype #37C is literally one of a kind, being the only product on the market with a 99% peptide concentration. With this high concentration of naturally occurring peptides, Prototype #37C can better stimulate the skin’s own production of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid, therefore making the skin soft and reducing the visible signs of aging more effectively.

Source by Maren Higgins


Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis Mechanism

Peptide synthesis is the production of peptide. Over the year different processes and methods were discovered and invented to produce large number of peptides to meet the need of the protein in different areas of medical sciences. The organic chemistry has helped a great deal in peptide synthesis mechanism by which peptides are produced.

Peptide synthesis is robust and fool proof. However, there are certain things which can really disturb the reproducibility of these protocols. Probably the chief amongst all disturbing elements is the quality of DMF. It is incredibly important to use ‘quality’ DMF during the solid phase peptide synthesis to achieve better yield. This means either getting it off the solvent system or opening a new bottle. There are few solid phase peptide synthesis mechanisms that fall under the solid phase peptide synthesis.

The first stage in solid-phase peptide synthesis is the choice; choosing what functional group you want your C -terminus to be:

If you want your C -terminus to be a carboxylic acid use 2-chlorotrityl resin.

If you want your C -terminus to be an amide use Rink amide resin.

If you are making a macrocyclic peptide use 2-chlorotrityl resin.

Once your choice of resin is made you will need to load your first amino acid onto the resin.

1- The process constitutes weighing up of appropriate amount of resin. Generally 300 mg for a 0.1 mmol scale synthesis is used. Unload the resin into a Poly-Prep chromatography column (BioRad).

2- Let resin swell for at least 30 min (longer is okay) at room temperature in CH2Cl2.

3- Weigh out an appropriate amount of the first amino acid and dissolve it in 8 mL CH2Cl2 w/ 0.3 ml 2,4,6-collidine. When making a macrocyclic peptide our first amino acid is almost always Boc-Orn(Fmoc)-OH. Use ca. 100 mg of Boc-Orn(Fmoc)-OH.

4- Using a flow of nitrogen gas, push out all CH2Cl2 from the column that contains the swelled resin and add the Amino acid/DCM/Collidine solution.

5- Rock for at least 8 hours (no longer than 24 hours).

6. Move on to capping 2-chlorotrityl Resin.

Capping 2-Cholotrityl Resin

The reason behind this step is to covalently link a small nucleophile (methanol) to the unreacted carbocations on the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin.

Prep time: 10 mins; Reaction time: 1 hour 1.

1- Clean the loaded resins 3X with CH2Cl2.

2- After cleaning make the capping solution using CH2Cl2: MeOH: DIPEA (17:2:1). Make this fresh each time by adding 1 ml MeOH and 0.5 ml diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA, or DIEA) to 9 ml of CH2Cl2.

3- Load off the capping solution on to the loaded resin and rock for 1 hour at room temperature. Do not extend the reaction time more than suggested, as exchange of the loaded amino acid with MeOH is a possibility.

4- After 1 hour, drive out the capping solution with nitrogen and wash the resin 2X with CH2Cl2 and 1X with DMF. It is for you to analyze as to how efficient your resin was loaded. Usually this step is overlooked, though, as loading 2-chlorotrityl resin is VERY reproducible if you do not stray from the protocol detailed above.

5- The loaded resin is all set to go through repeated Fmoc-deprotections and amino acid couplings to produce the rest of your peptide. The process of deprotection and coupling can be easily done manually (hand coupling) or on an automated synthesizer.

Source by Abhishek Dixit


Do Copper Peptides Really Work?

First, what exactly are Copper Peptides?

Generally speaking, peptides are protein molecules small enough to penetrate the skin’s protective barriers to get to the deeper layers. Certain kinds of peptides naturally bind very tightly with copper and the result is a compound consisting of a peptide and a copper atom which has become known as a Copper Peptide.

OK, so this discovery (made in the 70’s by a biochemist named Dr. Pickart) basically allows us to increase the copper levels in our skin, by applying a cream topically on the skin. And of course now we ask: why would we want copper delivered to our skin in the first place? Well, it turns out that copper peptides can have a positive effect on wound healing. They reduce scar tissue formation while stimulating normal skin remodeling. In other words, they help better restore the damaged area to its original look. In addition, they have anti-inflammatory properties and reduce irritation. At this point you might say “OK, Great! They remodel the skin! That’s exactly what I need for my wrinkles/stretch marks/saggy skin! Give me some!” Well, not so fast.

What was proven was that Copper Peptides can repair wounded skin, but the big question is: Are they also good for skin that is NOT wounded? In other words, is aging skin and wounded skin share the same properties that benefit from delivering copper into them?


A review published in the Aesthetic Surgery Journal (January 2004) concluded that: ” the science supporting wound healing with copper peptide is sound but the science supporting amelioration of skin aging is still weak, lacking good double-blind comparison studies”. I also found several studies published on Dr. Pikart himself’s SkinBiology web site. But they are mainly regarding wounds, and not wrinkles, with relatively small sample sizes, and no discussion of clinical significance (which is important to make sure that the results did not occur merely by chance).

In the article I’ve read called “Are Peptides Important Ingredients? ” a woman in her 40’s asks whether peptides can help reverse her skin aging signs. The response she got is that while there was some evidence of an increase in skin thickness in a certain study, it is inconclusive. “no one seems to be really sure if these peptides are effective in regular skin creams or not. In fact, while they [copper peptides] look promising, there’s some evidence to suggest that when used improperly, copper peptides can have a negative effect on skin by triggering free radical damage.” If you’re interested to read more on the scientific discussion there’s a very interesting thread in the EDS Forums (see link below) hat you can read.

Bottom line: scientific evidence about copper peptides having anti aging properties is still somewhat lacking.


In fairness, Copper Peptides are hardly the only example of a theory-based product that is used even though it was not entirely proven to work. For example, nobody is really sure how some anti-depressants work exactly, but they are still used and they DO help some people. So perhaps more important than scientific research is what users of Copper Peptides serums and products actually have to say about it. Well, it seems there’s no agreement about that, either. I found many people reporting both good and bad things about CP.

(BAD) “I stopped the CP’s and the area around my eyes would recuperate but my cheek area did not. To this day it is still slightly crinkled and has not gone back to what it was before CP’s.

(GOOD) “I have been using Skin Biology Copper peptides for a few years now and I have noticed an incredible improvement in my skin. “

(BAD) “… I had a similar experience with CPs with negatively impacted areas around eyes and neck. My neck looked absolutely horrible. I am still recovering from it. “

(BAD) ” upon using very conservatively the weakest formulation for several months, the texture of my skin and its natural elasticity were significantly and adversely affected.”

(GOOD) “I have been using your CP serum and emu oil on an area of damaged skin on my face for nearly a year, and have recently also started using your Super cop cream. Both have been very good in improving my skin, and I have been very pleased with the gradual improvement that I have seen.”

So it seems that while a lot of people report that CP serums do improve their skin, also many of them that complain about their side effects (they call it the ‘uglies’ – the appearance of sagging skin, wrinkles and fine lines that you get from using/overusing CP products). Some find that it goes away if a break is taken from the CP products, but others they experience what is seemingly a permanent damage.


In theory, Copper Peptides should work, and they DO work, at least for wound healing and for preventing the formation of scar tissue. There is no hard evidence, however, that they also work for anti aging, wrinkles and stretch marks. A lot of people seem to use CP nowadays. Some of them swear by it, while others swear that their skin only took a turn for the worse because of them. It’s obvious that CP do SOMETHING, perhaps they’re just not for everyone? That wouldn’t surprise me as most cosmetic products are like that.

I’m sorry to say but I haven’t reached a conclusion. I would have to give CP serums another try and use them for a long time (people that say it works say it works slowly) to draw a real conclusion, and I would probably do it if I had a reason to (I’m using my own Serum ), plus, the reported side effects do concern me.

By the way, recently a visitor to my blog wrote me and said she was going to start treating the stretch marks on her thighs, but wasn’t sure what topical to use. She had an interesting experiment in mind though:

“I am definitely going to try your serum after further research about oils, since it most certainly makes a lot of sense. I do want to satisfy my curiosity about copper peptides, so I plan on mixing the Super Cop 2x from Skin Biology with Retin-A and applying it one hip and your oils on another hip.” She said she would keep me updated on her progress. I will be sure to share the results with you when she does! (Yes, even if it means the CP worked better/faster than my own serum, if you can believe it).

Source by Amir Hever


Matrixyl 3000 & Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 Peptides Puts The Power Of Youth At Your Fingertips

Argireline (Acetyl Hexapeptide-8) one of the most sought after anti-aging agents on the market and Matrixyl 3000 have shown to significantly decrease the visible appearance of wrinkles are a safer, less expensive and offers fabulous alternative to Botulinum Toxin (botox).

As we age, our skin gets thinner, drier and less resilient, collagen depletes by environmental elements and our beautiful, young, smooth skin slowly gets thinner and wrinkles appear. As a result, certain peptides in our produces. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) discovered that peptides send a signal to your skin letting it know collagen has been lost, thus it needs to produce more. However, when the aging cycle continues, the “signal” depletes, thus the much needed peptides no longer produce.

In their research they stated, “Wrinkling of the skin is the most obvious sign of deterioration of the human body with age. This process involves a number of genetic, constitutional, hormonal, nutritional, and environmental factors, in addition to the influence of frequently repeated facial movements during laughing, smoking, etc. The physiological basis and mechanism of action of the active cosmetic ingredient acetyl hexapeptide-8 (Argireline). They prepared two formulations: an emulsion with an external aqueous phase for normal to dry skin, and a gel for oily skin. Laboratory analyses, rheology tests and in vitro release assays were used to evaluate the stability of these formulations for cosmetic treatment.

Matrixyl 3000 & Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 (Argireline) Peptides, when applied directly to the skin tricks the skin into thinking that it has lost collagen recently and needs to make more. The most effective signal peptides for cosmetic are Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 and Matrixyl 3000. These peptides work to mimic the broken down collagen, causing your skin to naturally react by producing more collagen. The hexapeptide Argireline actually paralyzes the muscles, preventing them from contracting. When facial muscles receive a certain neurotransmitter, they contract, forming lines and wrinkles. Argierline destabilizes this neurotransmitter telling muscles NOT to contract, effectively preventing the formation of lines and wrinkles! Argireline is marketed specifically as a topical alternative to Botulinum Toxin A.

Our Supreme Peptide Cream Quadruple-Action formula contains the highest content amount of Mega Peptides required to return your skin to its original state, at an cost you can afford. An Exceedingly dramatic Peptide cream where 6 Peptides are specialized to pass signals to the skin cells, releasing into and diffusing elasticity, causing your skin to naturally react by producing more collagen. This is the most Potent Peptide Cream on the market.

Source by Sarah Lynn Anderson


Can Peptides Help You Remove Wrinkles From Your Face?

At times, ingredients in the skin care products of today may seem weird by-products from a science experiment. In this article, we are going to shed some light on peptides. What are peptides actually? Before you take your chemistry book out of your bag to look for the definition of the term, make sure you read through this article.

If you are looking for an easy way of getting rid of wrinkles, we suggest that you give a go to peptides. The article will explain how you can reduce wrinkles using this thing. Read on to find out more.

What Are Peptides?

First of all, it’s important to keep in mind that these elements occur naturally. In layman’s terms, these are a type of proteins just like the proteins you know about. However, they consist of amino acids.

How Do They Work?

If you apply peptides in order to take care of your skin, you can trick your skin to produce a lot more collagen. Actually, what happens is that when we age, our body tends to lose collagen. It’s a type of protein that gives elasticity and support to your skin, according to medical science. As this substance breaks down, your skin gets a signal that it should produce fresh collagen. If you apply peptides, you can trick your skin so as to make it produce more of collagen.

What Happens to your skin when you use them?

In order to boost the production of collagen, peptides tend to promote the elasticity of the skin to make it look younger and healthier.

How To Use Them:

Lip Balm

As the name suggests, you need to apply this balm for a couple of weeks. If possible, you may want to use it for one full month. The natural peptides in the product will nourish your lips and they will look more youthful and voluptuous.

Peptide Cream

As the name suggests, you can apply this cream to your face. This cream has botanical peptides that are obtained from the seeds of hibiscus. They boost the production of collagen and rejuvenate your complexion with a moisturizer. With regular use, your skin will look a lot more plumped and firm. Moreover, you will see a reduction in the number of wrinkles on your face.

Combo of two products

You can get a glowing skin if you create a combo of arctic berry enzyme exfoliant and the arctic berry peptide radiance cream. With regular use, this solution will be able to reduce the signs of aging, improve the appearance of your skin and make your skin look calm, smooth, and luminous.

So, if you want to be young again by getting rid of the wrinkles from your face, we suggest that you give a go to a cream or balm that is based on peptides. This will hopefully make your skin look younger once again. Just make sure you consult your doctor before using them. The doctor will let you know if a product is safe for you.

Source by Shalini Madhav


Female Alopecia – Information, Causes, Prevention, and Treatment Options

Female Alopecia


2.-Growth cycles

3.-Main Causes

4.-Secondary Causes

5.-Topical treatments

6.-Oral treatments

7.-Cosmetic treatments



With different colors, styles and variations, young or mature, male or female, the hair has an important role in a person’s image.

While advertising for products that “strengthen the hair” are almost always male-oriented, it may seem that women do not suffer from alopecia. The reality is that over two thirds of women face the challenges of hair-loss at some point in their lives.

Many women find this very disturbing, perhaps more than men. In addition, the female physiology is unique, and factors such as menstrual cycles, pregnancy and menopause are particularly important.

For some women, hair loss can be genetic; however, many of the causes of female hair loss are treatable.

Without a doubt, the physical appearance of women depends greatly on their hair. For many women, their hair is a sign of youth and vitality.

Hair structure:

The external portion of the hair, called the stem, is the part of the hair that we see and style. In reality it is dead tissue produced by hair follicles, small bag-shaped structures located deep in the scalp. Each hair is enclosed within a follicle.

The average head has 100,000 hairs. At the base of the follicle is the oval shaped root, which is responsible for the growth of hair. In the lower portion of this is the papilla, which contains blood capillaries that provide blood to each hair.

As hair grows, the cells move towards the surface of the skin and become a protein called keratin, being replaced by new cells. Keratin is the same protein found in the nails.

The stem is composed of 3 layers: the cuticle, the cortex and medulla. The cuticle, or outer layer, consists of small cells known as scales. The cuticle serves as a case for the cortex, the thickest portion of the stem, composed of cells arranged in the form of tobacco leaves. The cortex holds the pigment that gives hair its color. The medulla is composed of cells with the form of a case and is located in the center. The spaces between cells in the medulla influence the refraction of light in tone and hair.

Glands and muscles

The hair is lubricated by oily secretions from the sebaceous glands, located on the sides of most follicles. Surrounding these glands and the rest of the follicle, there are groups of muscles (arrector pili) that allow the hair to stand up when a person is cold or afraid.

Cycles of growth

The average head has 100,000 hairs. Hair grows and is renewed regularly. Normally, 50 to 100 hairs fall out every day. If there are no problems, this loss will most likely go un-noticed.

Hair grows about 1 cm per month, although this growth declines as we age. Every hair on your head remains there for about two to six years, and during most of this time it is growing. When the hair is older it enters a resting stage in which it remains on the head, but stops growing. At the end of this phase the hair falls out. Typically, the follicle replaces the hair in about six months, but many factors can disrupt this cycle. The result may be that the hair falls out soon or is not replaced. Normally 90% of hair is in continuous growth (anagen phase) that lasts 2 to 6 years. 10% of hair is in a resting phase, which lasts about 2-3 months. At the end of this stage it is normal for the hair to fall out (telogen phase).

As the hair falls out is replaced by a new hair from the hair follicle, located under the skin. Throughout a person’s life span no new hair follicles are formed. Blonds have the most hair (140,000 hairs) followed by dark hair (105,000) and red hair (90,000). As we age the rate of hair growth diminishes, leading to a progressive thinning of hair. Since the hair is composed of protein (keratin), and this material is also in the nails, it is essential that all people ingest or eat an abundant amount of protein to maintain the healthy hair production. Protein is found in meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, cereals, nuts and soy.

Main causes

Androgenetic alopecia is the most common cause of hair loss. It is mainly determined by 3 factors: aging, hormones, and heredity.

Most people experience some hair loss as they age. The result may be a partial or total baldness. Men are much more likely than women to experience baldness and hair loss when they get older, but “female baldness” can also be inherited, which can cause modest or significant hair loss in women as they age. Hair loss is apparent initially between 25 and 30 years of age. In female hair loss, hair is replaced by increasingly thinner and shorter hair. Hair may even become transparent.

Usually, hair loss in women is less obvious than in men. Also, the pattern in which the hair falls out is different. It is most noticeable in the hair part, as well as the crown of the head, additionally the frontal hair line is retained. It is inherited from both father and mother.

About 50% of women who experience hair loss have “female baldness”. In these cases there is an abundance of dihydrotestosterone (male hormone) in the hair follicle. The conversion of testosterone to DHT is regulated by the 5-alpha-reductase enzyme in the scalp. Over time, the action of DHT degrades, and shortens the growth phase of the follicle (Anagen). Although the follicle is technically alive, it grows less and less each time. Some follicles just die, but most become smaller and thinner. As the Anagenic Phase remains very short, hair gradually thins and falls out until it becomes so fine that it can no longer sustain daily hair combing. Baldness turns a long, thick pigmented hair into thin, clear and light hair. Nevertheless, the sebaceous glands attached to the follicle remain the same size and continue to produce the same amount of sebum. When a medical treatment (flutamide, cyproterone or spironolactone) is able to reduce the male hormones, the sebaceous glands become smaller, and reduce their production of this hormone in the sebum causing less damage.

There also seems to be an immune factor in baldness. Basically, the immune system begins to target hair follicles in the areas of alopecia. The rise in male hormones (DHT) during puberty starts this process.

Secondary causes

A wide variety of factors can cause hair loss, often temporary, in women:

Birth Control Pills

The pills contain two ingredients, a synthetic estrogen and progestin. Women who experience hair loss while taking oral contraceptives are predisposed to a hereditary progressive hair thinning. This can be accelerated by the effects of the male hormone possessing some progestagens. If this happens, it is advisable to change to another type of oral contraceptive. Also, when a woman stops using certain oral contraceptives, she can be notice hair loss 2-3 months later. This lasts about 6 months and usually ceases. It would be similar to hair loss experienced after giving birth.

Iron deficiency anemia

Lack of iron causes hair loss in men as well as women. However, in women the problem is more prevalent, particularly in those with long or heavy menstrual cycles. The lack of iron can be detected easily with analysis, and corrected with medical treatment.


A diet low in protein can also cause hair loss, as can low iron intake. Vegetarians, people with diets low in protein, and patients with anorexia nervosa may be a protein deficient. When this occurs the body helps to conserve protein by shifting hair growth to the resting stage. This can lead to heavy hair loss about 3 months after the hair growth enters the resting stage. When the hair is pulled, it comes out easily at the root. This process is reversible with medical treatment, which requires an adequate intake of protein.


Some women lose large amounts of hair 2-3 months after giving birth. When a woman gives birth, too many hairs enter the resting phase. 2-3 months after she may notice a large number of hairs in the comb or brush after combing her hair. The hair loss can last about 6 months. The problem, in most cases, is resolved after appropriate medical treatment. Not all new mothers will suffer from this experience, and not all women will notice hair loss with each pregnancy.

Stress and illness

You may start to lose hair 1-3 months after a stressful situation, such as major surgery. High fevers, infections, severe or chronic diseases can also result in hair loss.

Thyroid Disease

An underactive or hyperactive thyroid can cause hair loss. These diseases are diagnosed by clinical symptoms and laboratory tests. These cases require special handling.


Some drugs used in cancer chemotherapy cause hair cells to stop their division, resulting in thinner more fragile hair that easily breaks as it emerges from the scalp. This phenomenon occurs 1-3 weeks after the start of anticancer treatment. The patient can lose 90% of their hair. In most patients, hair grows back when anticancer treatment ends.

Also, many popular medications can cause hair loss.

Drugs that reduce cholesterol: clofibrate (Atromis-S) and gemfibrozil (Lopid).

rugs for Parkinson’s: levodopa (Dopar, Larodopa).

Anti-ulcer drugs: cimetidine (Tagamet), ranetidina (Zantac) and famotidine (Pepcid).

Anticoagulants: Coumarina and Heparin.

Anti gotoso agents: Allopurinol (Loporin, Zyloprim, Zyloric).

Anti-arthritic: penicillamina, auranofin (Ridaura), indomethacin (Inacid), naproxen (Naprosyn), Sulindac (Clinoril) and methotrexate (Folex).

erivatives of Vitamin-A: isotretinoin (Accutane, Roacutan) and etretinato (Tegison, Tigason).

Anti-convulsants / antiepileptics: trimethadione (Tridion).

Anti-depressants: tricyclics, amphetamines.

Beta blockers for hypertension: atenolol (Tenormin), metoprolol (Lopressor), nadolol (Corgard), propranolol (Inderal) and timolol (Blocadren).

Anti-thyroid: carbimazole, iodine, thiocianato, thiouracilo.

Other anticoagulants, male hormones (anabolic steroids).

Alopecia Areata

A common disease that causes patches of hair loss on the scalp and other body parts. It affects men and women of all ages, but more commonly youth. The affected follicles significantly diminish their production of hair. They become very small and produce hair that is hardly noticeable. These follicles are in a resting state, and at any time can resume their normal activities after receiving a signal. Some people develop only a few bald spots that return to normal in about a year. Some people loose all of the hair on their head (alopecia totalis). In other people all body hair is lost (alopecia universal). It is believed that alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease in which the body mistakenly produces antibodies against the hair follicle (autoallergic). Anxiety and nervousness may trigger the disease or prevent it from healing. Treatment includes injecting cortisone, or by applying Minoxidil, cyclosporine, steroid creams or Anthralin to the affected area. In selected cases, UVA treatment, or the application of dibenciprona on the lesions is used in order to produce an allergic eczema to stimulate the resting follicle.


A fungal infection on the scalp. Small patches can cause flaking and some hair loss.

Inappropriate hair care

Many women use chemical treatments on their scalp, such as dyes, highlights, and perms. Chemical treatments can damage the hair if done incorrectly. The hair becomes weak and breaks when these substances are applied too often, left on too long, bleaching previously bleached hair, or when two or more procedures are performed in the same day. If the hair becomes too porous and dull by excessive exposure to chemical treatments, it is advisable to suspend these treatments until the hair has recovered. Shampoo, brushing and combing are necessary for proper care of the hair, but if done excessively or inappropriately can damage hair, causing it to break at the stalk, or produce split ends. You can use a conditioner or hair repair product after shampoo to reduce the force required to comb the hair and make it more manageable. When there are split ends, and hair that is difficult to comb, it is advisable to use hair repair products with silicone serums. Excess water should not be dried and rubbed vigorously with a towel. When the hair is wet its structure is more fragile, and vigorous combing or brushing should be avoided. Forget the old recommendation of combing or brushing in excess as well, because it damages hair. Use combs with widely spaced teeth and thin bristle brushes, preferably natural (wild boar bristle brushes for example). The hairstyles that require tension on the hair like curls and braids should be alternated with loose hair styles to avoid the constant “pull” that can produce hair loss, especially on the sides of the scalp.

Topical Treatments

1. Minoxidil. Is a vasodilator agent that has been used orally in the treatment of hypertension and is now widely used in treating various types of alopecia. In general, 1 ml of lotion is applied twice a day (every 12 hours) to dry hair, as humidity increases the penetration of the product several times. Works better in young men than in women (20 years), especially in those with mild hair loss (thinning) on the crown, or a small bald patch 3-4 cm, but also is functional for a receding hairline. The response to Minoxidil varies from individual to individual. Treatment should be 2 to 5 years. The scalp will recover beginning to grow more hair from the small thin hairs. Minoxidil causes hair becomes thicker and healthier. The outcome is better for people suffering from hair loss for less than 2 years. Most see fuzz growing in the first few months. Some experience more hair loss after the first applications. This is because the old hair should fall out in order for new hair to grow. Positive results can be seen in 4-8 months, although the maximum effects of Minoxidil are reached between 12-14 months.

2. Pyrimidine N-oxides. A generic class of hair tonics similar to Minoxidil (2.4-Diaminopyrimidine Aminexil-3-oxide). The results in more than 250 men and women include an 8% increase in hair growth after 6 weeks of treatment, compared to a decrease in the rate of hair growth with a placebo.

3. Tretinoin. Has been used for years in the treatment of acne. It is also a hair tonic in appropriate doses, particularly in combination with Minoxidil. If implemented together, first apply the Minoxidil, wait for it to dry (usually 15-30 minutes) and then apply Tretinoin. Tretinoin should be applied only at night. A slight irritation to the skin of the scalp is expected, especially at the beginning of the treatment.

4. Topical estrogen. Solutions of dienestrol or progesterone may be applied daily for 6-12 months.

5. Natural treatments. There are many treatments with vitamins, sulfur amino acids (cysteine, methionine, tiazolidín carboxylic acid), minerals (zinc) and plant extracts (Indian horse chestnut, calendula) that are useful as dietary supplements and promote healthier hair. Sulfur favours the formation of keratin, the protein that gives structure to the hair. The plant extracts act to stimulate the circulation and revitalize the hair follicle. Zinc gluconate is an astringent and reduces sebaceous secretion by inhibiting the production of DHT when applied topically. Amniotic fluid and tricosacarides hydrate and stimulate the follicle.

6. Others. Lately, lotions containing superoxide dismutase (copper peptide ligands) are being used to strengthen and activate the growth of hair. This is based on the fact that there are chemical messengers in the body that send signals to hair follicles to start the Anagen and telogen phases. In this sense, focused more towards the telogen phase (resting phase), while nitric oxide causes the hair to enter the anagen (growth) phase. Obviously, the treatments should stimulate the levels of nitric oxide and reduce the levels of superoxide radicals used in superoxide dismutase and antioxidant agents.

Oral treatments

” Dietary supplements (vitamins, sulfur amino aids). Although androgenetic alopecia is not due to lack of vitamins, it is suggested that certain sulfur amino acid supplements (arginine, cysteine), vitamins and minerals (biotin, iron, folic acid) favor capillary nutrition, reduce fat, and promote the synthesis of the protein that gives structure to the hair (keratin). Many of these compounds have an antioxidant action.

” Antiandrogens. Reduce the male hormone (DHT) that causes baldness. DHT is an androgen (male hormone) competing for a place in the hair follicle receptors. If follicle receptors are occupied by other agents, DHT cannot enter the hair follicle and therefore does not induce its aggressive action. The problem is that by blocking DHT in other parts of the body signs of feminization may show in men. In contrast, for women this block is less problematic.

” Zinc. Affects hormone levels when taken orally and inhibits the production of DHT when applied topically.

” Espirolactona. Habitually used as a diuretic. It is one of the most powerful antiandrogens. Reduces DHT, the hormone that causes hair loss. Can also be applied topically, which is not absorbed and does not produce internal effects. It is used in doses of 50 to 100 mg per day. It can alter the menstrual cycle and increase bleeding in some patients, but is generally well tolerated.

” CPA (cyproterone acetate). Is a derivative of an anti-progesterone with antiandrogenic effects. It is used for the control of androgenetic alopecia in women only. It can not be used in men. Used in combination with ethinylestradiol. The treatment must be at least 12 months and often requires 2 years for improvement. The result is more favourable if treatment is started within the first two years of the onset of alopecia. The treatment stops hair loss and improves hair quality. Treatment lasts 1-2 years.

” flutamide. Another antiandrogic indicated for women. The treatment lasts 1-2 years.

” Other antiandrogens. Ketoconazole is an antifungal agent that has antiandrogenic properties. In men the treatment can be very effective with Finasteride, a drug normally used to treat hypertrophy of the prostate.

Cosmetic treatments

Cosmetic treatments include creative hairstyles, wigs, and hair transplants. To reduce the visual effect of the thinning hair, camouflage methods can be used.

Keeping the hair short, will make it appear less patched. This will also make it easier to maintain. Longer hair produces bunches and locks of hair that are separated, showing large areas of the scalp.

A skilled hairdresser can disguise thin hair in certain areas. If the hair is thin at the hair line, the hair line and extends to the temples, ask your hairdresser to cut your hair short in front, and leave it longer at the temples.

If your hair is thinner on the crown of your head, keep hair short, about neck length. Long hair is heavier, and this pulls hair, separating it at the crown and showing more of the bald area. If you still have a reasonably thick hair on the roof of the head, leave it long and cover the bald patches.

If the hair is very thin is more difficult to cover up alopecia areas. You can try a gentile perm to increase the hairs volume.

If you have dark hair, you can try to lighten it a bit to reduce the contrast between the remaining hair and scalp, thus making the skin less noticeable.

A cosmetic trick that may work in women is to apply a bit of hair coloured eye shadow, on the scalp over the areas of thin hair. This is harmless and can make fine hair less noticeable.

Finally, do not use products that make tuffs or locks of hair stick together. This allows empty spaces on the scalp to be more easily seen.

Appropriate Shampoos

Maintaining clean hair helps preserve the health and beauty of hair. The frequency of washing and shampooing for each individual are important factors and should be recommended by a dermatologist. In the case of oily hair accompanied by thinning hair, frequent washing is advised because this reduces the fat on the surface of the scalp. It is important to have hair that is clean and non oily, as sebum contains elevated levels of dihydrotestosterone and testosterone (male hormones) that can be absorbed into the skin and affect hair follicles. In cases of dandruff and greasy hair that is washed frequently if it is best to switch to a treatment shampoo for frequent use. With these shampoos, you should wash your hair twice, and the second time leave it in for 2 -3 minutes without rubbing. The comb teeth should be wide and separated. Avoid metal brushes. If the hair has split ends (tricoptilosis) these can be repaired with a silicone polymer based repair serums, which acts as a patch on the split ends.


Hereditary hair loss is not curable, but it is controllable, and the sooner be treated the better. Currently there is not a perfect treatment for androgenetic alopecia, but there are drugs that stop hair loss and prolong the life of hair follicles.

We must consider the present and future hair treatments because hair needs living hair follicles. With baldness follicles are miniaturized and die after 5-10 years. With any treatment you will get better results with more follicles that remain alive. Many other hair problems are temporary and can be treated by dietary measures and other measures. In these cases, good dietary habits as well as eating supplements of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants help to stop hair loss and regain normal growth after a few months. For more information about hair loss, consult your dermatologist, because skin diseases include diseases of the hair and nails. Do not be influenced by advertisements for “hair tonic” or by hairdressing specialists.

Source by Nathan M


On-Cycle Therapy Tips and Exercises

If you are new to gymming or exercising, there are chances that you are not aware of cycles. The article will help you understand the term cycle, and its classifications, and several other factors, associated with exercising.

What are cycles?

In the typical dictionary of a health and fitness buff, on-cycle therapy is a period of time, for which he/she takes health and strength boosting steroids. In this period, you take a health supplement for a length of time, say, for a period of 6 or 10 weeks. After the on-cycle muscle and mass gaining cycle has completed, you have to undergo an additional training, which will be completely drug-free or steroid-free. The PCT, post cycle training will be of similar duration as your OCT, on cycle training. It is also known as off cycle training.

Benefits of on cycle –

Since almost every gym trainer suggests, or every bodybuilder undergoes, there certainly are several benefits of exercising according to on and off cycle therapies. Some of the advantages of this system are –

Improved Patience, Resistance or Tolerance Against Steroids – When you undergo on cycle period, you grow your tolerance level against steroids. If you are new to this, your trainer would suggest you not to chase an on-cycle therapy for a prolonged duration of time, since it can cause several side-effects and growths in your body, which, being a newcomer to gymming or bodybuilding, will be daunting for you to control.

Reduced Risk of Steroid Aftermaths – Steroids supply a great energy in your body, which sometimes, when not managed properly, can bring many side effects to you. A high dose of nutrients is supplied into your body system, because of which your body system can work pretty strangely, and you might not feel well, due to this spin-off. Undergoing (small duration) on-cycle therapy helps you control these side effects. This way, your immune system prepares itself in a manner that the risks of side effects likely to be caused by steroid consumption, and the pain arousing due to excess workout, are reduced.

Precise Duration of On Cycle Therapy

According to experienced international bodybuilders and gym trainers, there is no certain duration for a phase. However, they advocate to go on shortest possible steroid cycle, especially when you are new to this bodybuilding and steroid thing. The period is often designated by the weekly dose of the supplements, you take. Additionally, oral steroids should never be taken, continuously, for more than 8 weeks’ duration. Taking AAS, Anabolic Androgenic Steroids, for longer than this, would bring several significant side effects. After this duration, you should follow an off cycle period.

Source by Luke Harper

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